Recent advances in Parkinson disease

Suresh Chandra, Mayank Srivastav, Neelam Chauhan


The article reviewed various therapies other than dopamine treatment like A2a antagonists: antiparkinson medication reducing the over reactivity of substantia nigra due to loss of dopamine; Levodopa/Carbidopa Intestinal Gel: an aqueous gel containing levodopa and carbidopa; stem-cell therapies like embryonic and adult stem cell can be act through several mechanism; acupuncture: reduced the motor symptoms and other disease related factors; various antiparkinson medications like IPX066 and ND0611 are sustained release and transdermal patches which are transported to GIT through high nutrients and patches are found to be useful in increasing the concentration, half-life of levodopa, thus downs the threatening risk of PD. The future treatment for PD should be considered as they have less side-effect and better results than other treatment as they not only decrease the symptoms but also the incidences of PD. If the symptoms are diagnosed early patient should go for genetic therapy to relieve from the disease which not only reduce the progressive increase of symptoms and disease. Considering all therapies, future treatments shows the weightage in reducing the progressive increase of PD in patient. Though these treatments are proven to be effective in treatment but still more targeted tools and techniques are required which can specifically target the cause and thus lowers the graph and rating scale of PD.



Oxidative stress, Monogenic and familial, Necropsy, TRAP, Acupuncture

Full Text:



Nicholson G, Pereira AC, Hall GM. Parkinson's disease and anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2002;89(6):904-16.

Prasad YH, Yun L. The Development of Treatment for Parkinson’s disease. Advances in Parkinson’s Disease. 2015;4:59-78.

Hatano T, Hattori N. Aetiology and Pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Disease, Aetiology and Pathophysiology of Parkinson's Disease, Prof. Abdul Qayyum Rana (Ed.), In Tech; 2011.

Levine CB, Fahrbach KR, Siderowf AD, Estok RP, Ludensky VM, Ross SD. Diagnosis and Treatment of Parkinson ’s disease: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment Number 57. (Prepared by Metaworks, Inc., under Contract No. 290-97-0016.) AHRQ Publication No.03-E040. Rockville, MD:Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2003.

Martine L, Jean-Francois D, Christian D. The Effects of Physical Activity in Parkinson’s disease: A Review. J Parkinson’s Disease. 2016;6:685–98.

Nicholson G, Pereira AC, Hall GM. Parkinson's disease and anaesthesia. British J Anaest. 2002;89(6):904-16.

Corti O, Lesage S, Brice A. What genetics tells us about the causes and mechanisms of Parkinson’s Disease. Physiol Rev. 2011;91(4):1161-218.

Christine K, Ana W. Genetics of Parkinson’s Disease, Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2017.

Celeste S. Genetics of Parkinson Disease. Edited by Abdul Qayyum Rana published September, 2011.

Hassan S, Alex B, Angela C, Raynarth L. Causes of Parkinson’s disease: Literature Review Journal of Parkinsonism & Restless Legs Syndrome. 2011;1(1):5‐7.

Giovanni S, Gessica S, Lucio T, Laura B, Carlo F. Alpha-Synuclein, Oxidative Stress and Autophagy Failure:Dangerous Liaisons in Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration Aetiology and Pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Disease. Edited by Abdul Qayyum Rana published, 2011

Jankovic J. Parkinson’s disease:clinical features and diagnosis J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79(4):368-76.

Chaudhary KR, Healy DG, Schapira AH. Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease:diagnosis and management. Lancet NeurolMarch. 2006;5(3);235-45.

Gabriel H, Lai Eugene C. Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Int J Gerontol. 2007;1:2.

David G, Joyce G, Barbara S. Canadian Guidelines on Parkinson’s disease Introduction. The Canadian J Neurological Sci. 2012;39(4):S1-30.

Nutt JG, Wooten GF. Diagnosis and Initial Management of Parkinson’s disease. The New Eng J Med. 2005;353:1021-7.

David H, Howard H, Sharon M. Parkinson’s disease Medications. Hagerstown: National Parkinson Foundation; 2016.

Stanley F. Description of Parkinson’s disease as a Clinical Syndrome. New York Acad Sci. 2003;991:1–14.

Ching-Liang H. Acupuncture as treatment for nervous system diseases. Elsevier: Review article. 2012;2:51-7.

Hauser Robert A. Future Treatments for Parkinson’s disease:Surfing the PD Pipeline. Int J Neurosci. 2011;121:53–62.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Pharmaceutical and Biological Evaluations

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License


© Copyright 2018 - Pharmaceutical and Biological Evaluations